Nadia Cuzmici

Simulation models for economics

Project work on

"Employment and education."

 

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view/download model file: employment_and_education.nlogo

WHAT IS IT?

This project models the employment and education in a country, and the effects of the unemployment benefits on this.
The employment and education depends on the education that every woman has, on her patrimony , on the cost of education and on her weekly-expense. this also depends on the education required by the firms and on the open positions.
Women may be hired if their education is bigger or equal to the education required by the firm that they had chosen and if there are vacant places. If women arenít hired in a job they have to go to a school to acquire more education, but they must have a level of patrimony that allows them to pay the school.


HOW IT WORKS

Women move around, each women has a firm as a target. If womanís education level is lower than the education level request by the target or if the target has no more open positions, she have to choose another target. She can look for a job for 12 weeks, after that she will go to a school if her patrimony is still positive. She has to pay this school and she has an expense every week. She has to behave like this until she find a job, then she stops.


HOW TO USE IT

Click to SETUP button to set up the turtles and the patches. The women born with a different level of education and patrimony. The firms born with a different level of open positions and education required.
Sliders:
NUMBER-OF-FIRMS : defines how many firms are created
NUMBER-OF-WOMEN : defines how many women are created
NUMBER-OF-SCHOOL : defines how many schools are created
MAX_PATRIMONY : defines the maximum level of patrimony woman can have
WEEKLY-EXPENSE : defines the weekly expense of a woman
WEEKLY-WAGE : defines the weekly wage of a woman
SCHOOL-COST : defines the cost of the school
WEEKLY-UNEMPLOYMENT-BENEFIT : defines the weekly unemployment benefit
Switches:
UNEMPLOYMENT-BENEFIT : when on women receive unemployment benefits
SHOW-EDUCATION: when on each women shows her education level
SHOW-EDUCATION_FIRMS: when on each firm shows its required education level
SHOW-PATRIMONY: when on each woman shows her patrimony level
Plots :
TOTALS : shows the number of women employed and women unemployed
PATRIMONY : shows the average patrimony versus time
EDUCATION : shows the total level of education versus time


THINGS TO NOTICE

If women donít receive benefits they will not be able to pay the school then the level of education will not increase and so patrimony, and there will be no employments. If there is also a high expense level or a high school cost the benefit will be of no use.


PROCEDURES

breed [women woman]
women-own [patrimony
             expense
             benefit
             wage
             cost 
             target
             education
             time
             ]


breed   [firms firm]
firms-own [education_firms
             open_positions]
             
          
breed [schools school]


patches-own [education_required
             vacant_posts
             employees]
             
            
globals [employment
         unemployment
         women_with_education
         total_patrimony
         average_patrimony]
         


to setup
  ca
  setup-firms
  setup-women
  setup-schools
end

           
to setup-firms
  set-default-shape firms "factory"
  create-firms number-of-firms
  ask firms [ set color yellow 
                setxy random-xcor random-ycor
                set size 1.3
                set education_firms random 20
                set education_required (education_firms)
                set open_positions random 5
                set vacant_posts (open_positions)]              
end   


to setup-schools
  set-default-shape schools "book"
  create-schools number-of-schools
  ask schools [ set color green
               set size 1.3
               setxy random-xcor random-ycor] 
              
end 


to setup-women
  set-default-shape women "person"
  create-women number-of-women
  ask women[
      set color pink  
      set size 1.5  
      setxy random-xcor random-ycor 
      set time 0
      set patrimony random max_patrimony
      set expense weekly-expense
      set benefit weekly-unemployment-benefit
      set wage weekly-wage
      set cost school-cost
      set education random 7
      set target one-of firms
      face target
     ]
end


to go
  ask women[
    ifelse show-patrimony?
    [ set label patrimony ]
    [ set label "" ]]
  ask women [
    ifelse show-education?
    [ set label education ]
    [ set label "" ]]
  ask firms [
    ifelse show-education_firms?
    [ set label education_firms ]
    [ set label "" ]]
  look-for-job
  look-for-school
  go-again
  receive_benefits
  plot-employment 
  plot-patrimony
  plot-education       
end





to look-for-job
  ask women [ 
    set patrimony patrimony - expense 
    ifelse (distance target = 0) and (education >= education_required) and (vacant_posts > 0)
                      
                            [ set patrimony patrimony - expense + wage
                              set color red
                              ask patch-here [set employees (count women-here with [color = red])]] 
                        [if (color != red)
                           [set target one-of firms
                            face target 
                            ifelse distance target < 1
                              [move-to target]
                              [fd 1]]]
                    
                                
      set time (time + 1)]
                 
    ask patches [set employees (count women-here with [color = red])
                 if (vacant_posts = employees)
                       [set vacant_posts 0 ]]
end


to look-for-school
  ask women [ if (time >= 12) and (color != red) and (patrimony > 0) 
               [move-to one-of schools
                set education (education + 1 )
                set patrimony patrimony - expense - cost]]
end
                                                         
 

to go-again
   ask women
       [if time >= 20 
          [ set time 0]]
end                                               
                       




to plot-employment
  set employment count women with [color = red]
  set unemployment count women with [color = pink]
  set-current-plot "Totals"
  set-current-plot-pen "employment"
  plot  employment
  set-current-plot-pen "unemployment"
  plot  unemployment
end


to receive_benefits
  ask women[
    if unemployment-benefit 
      [if (patrimony < 20 ) 
         [ ifelse (distance one-of schools = 0) 
               [set patrimony ( patrimony - expense + benefit + 5 )]
               [set patrimony (patrimony - expense + benefit )]]]]
end



 to plot-patrimony
   set total_patrimony sum [patrimony] of women
   set average_patrimony ( total_patrimony / number-of-women)
   set-current-plot "Patrimony"
   set-current-plot-pen "patrimony"
   plot average_patrimony

 end
 
 to plot-education
   set-current-plot "Education"
   set women_with_education sum  [education] of women
   set-current-plot-pen "education"
   plot women_with_education
 end